Underground Wire Fault Detector Project Report - Free download as PDF In this project, a way for sleuthing underground cable fault distance locator is done. This paper proposes fault location model for underground power cable using microcontroller. The aim of this project is to determine the. Certified that this project report “CABLE FAULT DISTANCE LOCATOR” is the count and also difficult to find fault location for underground power cable. We.
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The target of this project is to work out the gap of underground cable fault The below figure is a block diagram of underground cable fault distance surveyor. digitalized so the project is intended to detect the location of fault in Need for underground cable fault distance locator: Till last decades. ABSTRACT: The aim of this project is to detect the location of fault in underground cable lines. The proposed system finds the exact location of the open circuit.
The current would vary depending upon the length of fault of the cable in case there is a short circuit of LL or 3L or LG etc. The series resistor voltage drop changes accordingly which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which the 2 P age 3 programmed microcontroller would display the same in Kilo meters.
Underground Cable Fault Distance Locator Circuit and Working
This is proposed model of underground cable fault distance locator using microcontroller. It is classified in four parts DC power supply part,cable part,controlling part, display part. The cable part is denoted by set of resistors along with switches.
Next is controlling part which consist of analog to digital convertor which receives input from the current sensing circuit, converts this voltage into digital signal and feeds the microcontroller with the signal. The microcontroller also forms part of the controlling unit and makes necessary calculations regarding the distance of the fault. The microcontroller also drives a relay driver which in turn controls the switching of a set of relays for proper connection of the cable at each phase.
The display part consists of the LCD display interfaced to the microcontroller which shows the status of the cable of each phase and the distance of the cable at the particular phase, in case of any fault.
Step2: Begin an infinite loop; turn on relay 1 by making pin 0.
Step5: Call delay. Step6: Repeat steps 3 to 5 for other two phases.
The filtered DC voltage is given to regulator to produce 12v constant DC voltage. Usually, DC voltages are required to operatee various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. This is done by a transformer. Hardware is less because of single chip microcomputer.
It converts A. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification The Bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage.
The Bridge rectifierr circuit is shown in the figure. The circuit has four 5 P age 6 diodes connected to form a bridge. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of the bridge. LCD Liquid crystal display are interfacing to microcontroller Voltage Regulator: A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.
Sanded surfaces also allows the image from the paper to stick better. STEP 3: Transferring the PCB print onto the copper plate Method 1 Iron on glossy paper method for complex circuits : Transfer the printed image taken from a laser printer from the photo paper to the board.
Make sure to flip top layer horizontally. Put the copper surface of the board on the printed layout.
Ensure that the board is aligned correctly along the borders of the printed layout. And use tape to hold the board and the printed paper in the correct position.
Method 2 Circuit by hand on PCB for simple and small circuits : Taking the circuit as reference, draw a basic sketch on copper plate with pencil and then by using a permanent black marker. Heat up the electric iron to the maximum temperature.
Put the board and photo paper arrangement on a clean wooden table covered with a table cloth with the back of the photo paper facing you. Using pliers or a spatula, hold one end and keep it steady. Then put the hot iron on the other end for about 10 seconds.
Now, iron the photo paper all along using the tip and applying little pressure for about 5 to 15 mins. Pay attention towards the edges of the board you need to apply pressure, do the ironing slowly. Doing a long hard press seems to work better than moving the iron around.
UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT DISTANCE LOCATOR
After ironing, place printed plate in luke warm water for around 10 minutes. Paper will dissolve, then remove paper gently. Remove the paper off by peeling it from a low angle.
In some cases while removing the paper, some of the tracks get fainted. In the figure below, you can see that the track is light in color hence we can use a black marker to darken it as shown. First put rubber or plastic gloves.Oxford: Clarendon, , pp  K.
The distance between the measuring point and the fault point is computed on the basis of the measured values and the parameters of the section. Jitendra Pal Singh is pursuing B. Faults sometimes develop, such as when the cable is punctured creating a short circuit between the conductor and the concentric neutral, which require the repair or replacement of the cable or a portion thereof.
Currents and voltages are measured at a measuring point at one end of the section.
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