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All these CSS layout techniques rely on three basic concepts: positioning, floating, and CSS MASTERY: ADVANCED WEB STANDARDS SOLUTIONS. Advanced Web Standards Solutions. CSS Mastery: Advanced Web Standards Solutions, Third Edition. Andy Budd Emil Björklund. Books to read. Contribute to skyhacker2/books development by creating an account on GitHub.


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_Ch00 1/11/06 PM Page i. CSS Mastery Advanced Web Standards Solutions Andy Budd with Cameron Moll and Simon Collison _Ch00 1/11/ /keybase/public/forloop/dev/smeltitherabpigs.tk Download Raw. This file was signed by: forloop. markphd. Who is also provably: isprototypeofme. Using the. Name: CSS Mastery, 3rd Edition Format: PDF CSS Mastery: Advanced Web Standards Solutions is your indispensable guide to cutting-edge CSS.

There are also pseudo-elements corresponding to a hypothetical element that exists at the beginning and end of a piece of content. The first line of each piece of text can be targeted with the:: Having completed my studies there. All of this without having to add a single superfluous element! Handy indeed. The first line is transformed into uppercase and is also using a different font with the:: This can be done using a pseudo-class selector..

These selectors. Links are interactive content. Some of the most common pseudo-class selectors can be used for styling links. You can also make other elements interactive by using JavaScript. There are plenty of other elements that are interactive by default. Pseudo-Classes There are instances where you may want to style an element based on something other than the structure of the document—for instance.

It can also be a number representing the ordinal position of the targeted elements. It will accept the keywords odd and even. Meet the negation pseudo-class.

If we were to go to http: The nth- child selector acts as a function that can accept a number of different expressions as arguments. Structural Pseudo-Classes CSS 3 introduced a host of new pseudo-classes relating to document structure. The most common of these is the nth-child selector. This gives us opportunities to create some incredibly efficient patterns. The same goes for the number before the n. A table where the rows are styled using: To get a little bit into the math here.

The Level 3 selectors specification adds a corresponding one for the last child. The number 3 relates to the ordinal position of every element to target after the first. The expression is evaluated with n as a number. So in the previous example the nth-child selector would match the fourth.

There are other pseudo-class selectors that support these types of expressions. Back in CSS 2. We can get more advanced with targeting elements of a certain type by using these pseudo-class selectors: HTML5 introduced several new attributes for form inputs.

Structural selectors in general have wide support. Note that the numbered matching does not count only elements with the class name column: This is achieved by using a combination of the: Form Pseudo-Classes There are a number of pseudo-classes specifically for targeting elements within forms. These can be used to reflect the state of certain form inputs depending on how the user interacts with them. In the Selectors Level 4 spec. For some further inspiration on styling based on element count.

One of these new attributes is the required attribute: We also include the adjacent sibling selector to make sure we select all of the rest of the columns. If you need to support these legacy browsers. Pretty neat. If an input element requires a specific valid type such as an e-mail address. On screen you will see this invalid e-mail address outlined in red 28 www. Using the: The last field is not a valid e-mail address and is given a distinctly different outline with the: If two rules are equally specific.

The cascade works by assigning an importance to each rule. Author style sheets are those written by the site developers and are considered the most important. So the cascade works in the following order of importance: The specificity of a selector is broken down into four constituent levels: CSS handles such conflicts through a process known as the cascade. The Cascade With even a moderately complicated style sheet. Specificity To calculate how specific a rule is. The specificity of a rule is then calculated by adding up the value of each of its selectors.

To learn more about these pseudo-classes. This is to ensure that a highly specific selector. To give users more control. Users can apply their own styles via the browser settings. Rules with more specific selectors override those with less specific ones. A rule with an ID will be more specific than one without an ID. Table Because each of the selectors has the same specificity.

This does not seem intuitive until you understand the details of specificity and the cascade. A good example of the cascade in action is when using pseudo-classes on the link element as described earlier. Using these rules. Order of Rules when Resolving the Cascade The fact that the last rule defined takes precedent when two rules have the same specificity is an important one.

It means that you have to consider where to place your rules in your style sheets. If you had the a: We have a basic introductory text color of gray.

CSS Mastery, 3rd Edition.pdf

Specificity allows you to set general styles for common elements and then override them for more specific elements. On the homepage. The call-to-action component inside the home page intro. A better approach would be to simplify your selectors and reduce their specificity: The link styling for the intro home.

The intro- highlighted links no longer override the call-to-action link color. Instead of talking about an intro on the homepage. Specificity and Debugging Specificity can be extremely important when fixing bugs. What color do you think the two headlines would be. Inheritance is very useful. Any style applied directly to an element will always override an inherited style. If the property you are trying to set is an inherited property. Although they seem related at first glance.

This is because inherited styles have a null specificity. Debugging specificity issues can be a tricky business. Certain properties. This can be a useful tool if you only have ID attributes to hook your styles into. Taking a look at what rules actually get applied. In Chrome. Some of the later selectors may look more complicated. All modern browsers have developer tools built into them that make it very clear how specificity is being applied to a particular element.

But it is actually the browser default style sheet that sets the heading size. The same would be true of font sizes. If you set the font size on the body. You may assume that headings do not inherit text size. It you have lots of elements inheriting various styles. There are various methods of doing this. Just as sensible use of the cascade can help simplify your CSS. The Link and Style Elements You can add styles directly to the head of a document by placing them in a style element: Avenir Next.

The universal selector has a specificity of 0. There are two ways to attach external style sheets to a web page. The most common approach is to use the link element: This means that properties set via the universal selector.

Declaration from sheet2. An important metric in web performance is the time it takes for content to begin being displayed on the screen. When you add several link elements referencing style sheets to your HTML. Declaration from sheet1. You can add this to as many HTML pages as you wish. Declaration from sheet3. Performance Which way you choose to load CSS into the page is the single biggest option you have for controlling how quickly your page will be displayed by browsers assuming the HTML page itself loads fast!

When adding styles to your page. Declaration from inside the style element 4. Consider the following snippet from the head of an HTML element. The latter use means including one external CSS file on your page might result in subsequent CSS files being loaded in by the browser. Using the link element or the import directive achieves much the same result on the face of it.

You can also use the import directive to load an external CSS file: Most web servers have a mechanism for enabling automatic compression of content to browsers that support it.

The strategies for this involve setting various HTTP headers that instruct the browser to cache the files for a very long time. An extra HTTP request means extra data being sent from the browser. Browsers respond best when they have up front all the CSS information they need to lay out a page. Using just one link element to load a CSS file and then using import inside that one does not mean that the browser only uses one request: Always try and keep the number of CSS files you deliver in a live website to just one or two.

Reducing HTTP Requests It is important when linking to external style sheets that you keep the number of files to a minimum. That way they can start to understand what the page will look like and render the page to the screen in one go.

So avoid using import at least on a live site. Two files will always result in more data being sent between the browser and the server than one file with the same actual CSS content. The details of how this works is somewhat outside of the scope of this book. The server then has to send back response headers for each request.

CSS compresses very effectively because it has many repeated patterns such as property names and values. This can considerably slow down how fast your site appears to load. Each additional file results in an extra HTTP request. We had a first look at how you can avoid getting into a specificity arms race. The defer attribute will have a similar effect.

Internet Explorer prior to version 10 has missing or partial support. Most notably. You have also learned about how to apply CSS to a document and some of the ways this can impact the performance of your web pages. Which method you choose is mostly a matter of browser support: Summary In this chapter you have reacquainted yourself with the common CSS selectors as well as learned about some powerful new selectors you may not have come across before. You now have a better understanding of how specificity works and how you can use the cascade to structure your CSS rules and help them hit the target.

Which one is right depends on what the script itself does. These concepts control the way elements are arranged and displayed on a page and form the basis of many layout techniques. More recently. Once you have a firm grasp of these fundamentals.

Outside the border is a margin. If you add a background to an element. If the box also has a margin around it of 10 pixels. Adding a border applies a line to the outside of the padded area. Box-Sizing By default. These lines come in various styles such as solid.

If you wanted a box with a 5-pixel border and a 5-pixel padding on each side to be pixels total width. Another property that can be applied to boxes. Margins are the transparent space outside of the visible parts of the box. An illustration of the box model Padding is applied around the content area.

As such. You can of course override these browser styles in your own style sheets. The default value for box-sizing is content-box and applies the behavior described so far. If you set the box-sizing property to a value of border-box. The width property applies to the content area You can change the way the width of a box is calculated using the box-sizing property.

The margin still affects the overall size the element occupies on the page. The default box model. The walls of the box act as a border and provide visual definition. This feels like a more logical solution. The box model when the box-sizing property is set to border-box. The width property now corresponds to the entire width of the visible parts of the element So why is this useful?

If the box needs to be a specific width. Take the following example: Now if you need to space the boxes out before you stack them.

Imagine a CSS box as being like a packing crate. Assuming we want the. Adding box-sizing: Now our. We will come back to responsive web design and how it relates to CSS in Chapter 8. The Visual Formatting Model With an understanding of the box model. Doing so can be especially helpful when practicing responsive design.

If we assume that our. Margins can also be given a negative value. In this instance. Minimum and Maximum Values Sometimes it may be useful to apply the min-width and max-width properties to an element. Using percentage values has some peculiarities that deserve mentioning. This means they are elements that are visually displayed as blocks of content. This means you can make an inline-level element such as span behave like a block-level element by setting its display property to block. When it comes to using these measurements for padding or margins on the top and bottom sides of an element.

This can be used in a number of interesting ways to pull elements in and out of positions of the page. It is also possible to cause an element to generate no box at all by setting its display property to none. It is possible to change the type of box generated by using the display property. Assuming the markup is the same as in the previous example. If you do need to set a default height measurement for some reason. The box.

You can use any measurement of length like pixels. People often refer to elements such as p. That seems only logical at first—however.

As the name suggests. Unless specified. By applying the values table. The important takeaway is that inline-level boxes and block-level boxes are still fundamental to the default behavior of HTML elements. When you use table markup the table.

The horizontal box formed by one line of text is called a line box. Inline boxes are laid out in a line horizontally. Their horizontal spacing can be adjusted using horizontal padding. The inline components inside a paragraph block box You can also set the display property of an element to be inline-block.

The only way you can alter the dimensions of a line box is by changing the line height. Block-level boxes will appear vertically one after the other. This division between outer and inner display modes seen across both inline-block. It is also possible to set the display property of other elements so that they adopt the layout behavior of tables. Margin collapsing is a relatively simple concept.

You cannot style anonymous block boxes or line boxes directly. When two elements are above one another. In practice. Each line of text forms an anonymous line box. A similar thing happens with the line boxes of text inside a block-level element.

The height of this margin will equal the height of the larger of the two collapsed margins. Most boxes are formed from explicitly defined elements. Before After Content area Content area margin-bottom: Margin Collapsing When it comes to normal block boxes. Say you have a paragraph that contains three lines of text. Say you have an empty element with a margin but no border or padding.

In this situation. Before After margin-top: Margins collapse to maintain consistent spacing between elements Margin collapsing only happens with the vertical margins of block boxes in the normal flow of the document. The containing block of an element depends on how the element is positioned. With margin collapsing. Without margin collapsing. Margins between things like inline boxes. By default. This changes when you change the element to have a positioning model of absolute or fixed.

Without Margin Collapsing With Margin Collapsing The space between paragraphs is The space between paragraphs is double the space at the top. Containing Blocks The concept of what gives an element its containing block is important because it decides how various properties are interpreted. If the element has a static position same as no position property declared or a relative position. Margin collapsing may seem strange at first. This means that the space between paragraphs will be double the space at the top of the page.

Relatively positioning an element With relative positioning. You can then shift the element relative to its starting point by setting a vertical or horizontal position. Absolute Positioning Relative positioning is actually considered part of the normal-flow positioning model. By contrast. If you set the top position to be 20 pixels.

D.O.W.N.L.O.A.D [P.D.F] CSS Mastery: Advanced Web Standards Solutions [A.U.D.I.O.B.O.O.K]

Setting the left position to 20 pixels. As with relatively positioned boxes. There are various intricacies to take into account when stacking items with z-index: This allows you to create floating elements that always stay at the same position in the window.

Many sites use this technique to keep parts of their navigation in view at all times. This is also known as the initial containing block. Because absolutely positioned boxes are taken out of the flow of the document. If the element has no positioned ancestors.

This can help improve usability because the user never has to look far to get back to an important part of the interface. Although absolute positioning can be a useful tool for laying out elements of your pages. You can control the stacking order of these boxes by setting a numeric property called z-index. This gives you a great deal of flexibility. As we have become more proficient with other layout techniques in CSS. The higher the z-index. You can literally position an element anywhere on the page.

Fixed Positioning Fixed positioning is a subcategory of absolute positioning. The top bar and side navigation on the Google Developer documentation stays fixed as you scroll down Floating Another important visual model is the float model. Its width will also shrink to the smallest width needed to contain its content. A floated box can be shifted either to the left or the right until its outer edge touches the edge of its containing block or another floated box.

If you float all three boxes to the left.

Box 1 is shifted left until it touches its containing block. Example of elements being floated left If the containing element is too narrow for all the floated elements to fit horizontally.

Because it is no longer in the flow. If the floated elements have different heights. Line boxes shorten when next to a float 53 www. No boxes floated Image floated left Line boxes shorten to make room for the floated box Figure In technical terms.

If there is not enough available horizontal space. If a floated element is followed by an element in the flow of the document. When you clear an element.

Many people think the clear property simply removes some flag that negates the previous float. Second paragraph cleared Second paragraph cleared Margin added to clear float. The clear property can be left. This can be useful when using floats as a layout tool.

You want this picture and text to be contained in another element with a background color and border. Say you have a picture that you want to float to the left of a title and a small block of text to the right. You could probably try something like this: Adding a clearing div forces the container to enclose floats 55 www. How do you visually get the wrapper to enclose the floated element? You need to apply a clear somewhere inside that element. Often there will be an existing element you can apply the clear to.

Some rules allow elements to establish their own. The float is removed from the page flow. As we discussed previously. These include the following: When an element has rules that trigger a new block formatting context and is next to a float.

Other rules define how the page must automatically contain any floats sticking out at the end otherwise the contents inside the floated element might end up outside of the scrollable area and all block boxes by default have their edge aligned with the left edge of the containing block or the right edge.

We have already seen some of the rules for the inline formatting context—for example. This can be used to re-create the. By applying this to the containing element of your floated elements. In this case. The way we can do this is to simulate the extra clearing element using the: Formatting Contexts CSS has a number of different sets of rules that apply to how elements interact with each other as they flow horizontally or vertically across the page.

This set of rules is called the block formatting context. The element itself still stretches underneath the float as far as it needs to.

The technical name for one of these sets of rules is a formatting context. If only the. Creating a new block formatting context forces. No block formatting context With block formatting context. These represent explicit lengths that are derived from either the surrounding context extrinsic or the content of the element intrinsic.

Both have serious constraints. It also allows you to change the order of elements as rendered on the page. At the time of writing. You would imagine that a robust and flexible layout model would be a key part of a visual presentation tool like CSS.

Bibliographic Information

Initially this included adopting data tables because of their useful layout characteristics—despite their bloated markup and inappropriate semantics.

Flexbox acts as an upgrade of the normal flow model inline and block. Flexbox allows you to lay out children of a box either horizontally or vertically and determine the size. The good news is that it is constructed in such a way that you can combine it with other methods. This means layouts are no longer impacted by the source order of HTML. You can also control the space of the gaps between columns and apply border-like visual effects to these gaps.

As multi-column layout is more a tool for typography than general layout. You learned the difference between inline and block boxes. In the following chapters of this book. You were introduced to the various formatting models of CSS. You also learned about the concept of margin collapsing and how this can affect layout.

We will get acquainted with this powerful new module in Chapter 7.

Other books: UPGRADED CHEF PDF

Summary In this chapter. It offers complete separation of layout from source order. One element acts as a source of content. We will take a closer look at flexbox in Chapter 6. Now that you are armed with these fundamentals. Regions CSS Regions allows you to specify how content flows between elements on a page.

Grid layout is not yet widely supported. This module allows you to choose either a set number of columns or a preferred width. Multi-Column Layout The Multi-column Layout Module is a fairly straightforward way of allowing content to flow into separate columns. As our first example in this chapter. Starting with the body element and working down into more and more specific rules.

There are a number of areas we will cover in this chapter: This opens up the possibility for us to learn from hundreds of years of typographic history. The fact that it still renders as a readable document is due to the default style sheet in the browser. Previous editions of CSS Mastery did not contain a separate chapter on web typography. Our goal is to create a relatively short style sheet to help improve the legibility and aesthetics of the page.. A simple HTML document with no styles yet applied Our simple document contains a couple of headings and some paragraphs of text with some inline elements to enhance the text where applicable.

Links will also still be blue. Text Color Text color is perhaps one of the most basic things we set for a document. Sufficient contrast is crucial for accessibility.

Finally, wed like to thank all those tireless designers and developers who have subsequently picked up the baton, and have helped turn CSS into the modern design language we know today. Wed also like to thank all the designers and developers who constantly help and inspire us by bouncing ideas about CSS on Twitter and various Slack teams.

We want to thank everybody who helped get this book over the finish line, including inUse who sponsored part of the work. A special thanks to technical editor Anna Debenhamif there are any errors in the book, its more than likely we put them in there when she was looking the other way. Wed also like to thank Andy Hume, who contributed his expertise during the early phases of writing, setting the direction for this new edition. Photos in the book or in examples are in most instances taken by us or gathered from Public Domain sources.

The following images are licensed via the Creative Commons Attribution 2. Finally, wed both like to thank our partners for patience and support during the considerable time it took to produce these pages. After all, CSS was still a relatively niche subject back then; largely the preserve of bloggers and web standards enthusiasts.

The majority of sites were still being built using tables and frames, and the folks on my local developer mailing list thought I was mad, and CSS was just a pipe dream. Little did they know we were on the verge of a web standards revolution and the field exploded around the time the book was published, pushing the book to the top of my publishers bestselling chart for years to come.

By the time the second edition came out, CSS was now firmly established. The role of the book changed from exposing new people to the power of CSS, to helping make them more efficient and effective. So we scoured the Web for the latest techniques, workarounds, and hacks, and created a book we hoped would become the definitive guide for web designers and front-end developers everywhere.

It felt like wed reached a stable point in the development of the language, and the book would remain relevant for a long time. How wrong we were. Rather than becoming stagnant, CSS of recent years feels like it has finally started to live up to its original promise. We entered the golden age of web standards; an age where browser support was good enough for us to finally move focus away from hacks, instead putting our efforts into writing elegant, well-crafted, and highly maintainable code for the largest and most complicated sites around.

So it was time to write a third edition; to bring together all these new tools, techniques, and ways of thinking into a single reference. To help in this task I drew upon the skills of my good friend, Emil Bjrklund, a developer of rare skill and ability. What Emil brings to the book is a deep understanding of modern CSS practices; how to craft highly flexible code using the latest techniques that works across the widest range of browsers, screens, and platforms, in the most elegant way possible.

Together weve almost completely rewritten the book from the ground up, adding new chapters on web typography, animation, layout, responsive design, how to structure your code, and much more.

This new edition follows in the footsteps of previous editions, offering a mix of practical examples, language reference, and cross-browser workarounds for tricky techniques. The sign of CSS mastery is no longer about knowing all the arcane hacks to make CSS work at all, or knowing all properties by heart. CSS today consists of several dozen specifications, encompassing hundreds of propertiestheres probably no one who knows it all!

Instead, this book emphasizes flexibility and robustness, making sure your code works in the ever-changing landscape of different browsers, devices, and usage situations. We wont cover every single language feature, but you will find a good overview of whats available, some lesser-known old-school tricks, and the occasional glimpse into the future of CSS.

To enjoy the book fully, you should have at least some small grasp of how CSS worksmaybe you have played with it for a while, or even worked on a website or two. The book starts with three short introductory chapters on the very foundations of creating and styling web pages, so even if youre rusty, youll get a recap.

After that, each chapter introduces new features of the language and progressively more complex examples. Even if youre a seasoned CSS practitioner, you should find plenty of interesting and useful techniques for solving common web design problems, in which case you should feel free to jump to the chapters that pique your interest.

Regardless of your previous understanding of the language, we hope the resulting book will help you unlock some of the secrets of CSS and become a true CSS Master. We just love tinkering with things. The following images are licensed via the Creative Commons Attribution 2. Finally, wed both like to thank our partners for patience and support during the considerable time it took to produce these pages. After all, CSS was still a relatively niche subject back then; largely the preserve of bloggers and web standards enthusiasts.

The majority of sites were still being built using tables and frames, and the folks on my local developer mailing list thought I was mad, and CSS was just a pipe dream. Little did they know we were on the verge of a web standards revolution and the field exploded around the time the book was published, pushing the book to the top of my publishers bestselling chart for years to come.

By the time the second edition came out, CSS was now firmly established. The role of the book changed from exposing new people to the power of CSS, to helping make them more efficient and effective. So we scoured the Web for the latest techniques, workarounds, and hacks, and created a book we hoped would become the definitive guide for web designers and front-end developers everywhere.

It felt like wed reached a stable point in the development of the language, and the book would remain relevant for a long time. How wrong we were. Rather than becoming stagnant, CSS of recent years feels like it has finally started to live up to its original promise.

We entered the golden age of web standards; an age where browser support was good enough for us to finally move focus away from hacks, instead putting our efforts into writing elegant, well-crafted, and highly maintainable code for the largest and most complicated sites around. So it was time to write a third edition; to bring together all these new tools, techniques, and ways of thinking into a single reference. To help in this task I drew upon the skills of my good friend, Emil Bjrklund, a developer of rare skill and ability.

What Emil brings to the book is a deep understanding of modern CSS practices; how to craft highly flexible code using the latest techniques that works across the widest range of browsers, screens, and platforms, in the most elegant way possible.

Together weve almost completely rewritten the book from the ground up, adding new chapters on web typography, animation, layout, responsive design, how to structure your code, and much more.

This new edition follows in the footsteps of previous editions, offering a mix of practical examples, language reference, and cross-browser workarounds for tricky techniques. The sign of CSS mastery is no longer about knowing all the arcane hacks to make CSS work at all, or knowing all properties by heart. CSS today consists of several dozen specifications, encompassing hundreds of propertiestheres probably no one who knows it all!

Instead, this book emphasizes flexibility and robustness, making sure your code works in the ever-changing landscape of different browsers, devices, and usage situations.

CSS Mastery

We wont cover every single language feature, but you will find a good overview of whats available, some lesser-known old-school tricks, and the occasional glimpse into the future of CSS. To enjoy the book fully, you should have at least some small grasp of how CSS worksmaybe you have played with it for a while, or even worked on a website or two.

The book starts with three short introductory chapters on the very foundations of creating and styling web pages, so even if youre rusty, youll get a recap. After that, each chapter introduces new features of the language and progressively more complex examples. Even if youre a seasoned CSS practitioner, you should find plenty of interesting and useful techniques for solving common web design problems, in which case you should feel free to jump to the chapters that pique your interest.

Regardless of your previous understanding of the language, we hope the resulting book will help you unlock some of the secrets of CSS and become a true CSS Master. We just love tinkering with things. When we got our new Parrot AR Drone at the office, we had it in pieces before wed even looked at the instructions.

We enjoy working things out ourselves and creating our own mental models of how we think things behave. We muddle through and only turn to the manual when something goes wrong or defies our expectations. In fact, this is likely how many of you learned to code; by picking up tips from blogs, viewing source to see how your favorite designers had achieved a particular effect, and by browsing open source repositories for snippets of code.

You almost certainly didnt start out by reading the full specification, which is enough to put anyone to sleep. Tinkering is a great way to start, but if youre not careful, you may end up misunderstanding a crucial concept or building in problems for later on.Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. In fact, its one of the main methods for ensuring maintainable code. Having spent over a year designing full CSS w3c-compliant sites, I though there wasn't too much more I could learn on the subject.

That alone is worth much more then thirty bucks. I accumulated a dozen authoritative links, some with handfuls of links themselves, to reference CSS solutions, fixes to particular quirks and of course hacks and filters.

LYNDON from Norwich
I do relish studying docunments rightfully. Look over my other articles. One of my extra-curricular activities is mahjong.
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