stricken sertão for the south and presumably a better life in the city. Suzana Amaral's A Hora da. Estrela (), based on the novella by Clarice Lispector. A Hora da Estrela - Clarice smeltitherabpigs.tk Uploaded by Karoline .. sermão pelo bom sucesso das armas de portugal contra as da holanda smeltitherabpigs.tk Uploaded by. The Hour of the Star (). Cover of the first edition of A hora da estrela. Three poignant intertwined narratives smeltitherabpigs.tk
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tion of Clarice Lispector's A Hora da Estrela.' It will also com- ment, in passing, on general issues related to literary translation as well as distinctive aspects of. Neste volume, Márcia Lígia Guidin, professora universitária de literatura, analisa A hora da estrela, de Clarice Lispector. Aqui são discutidas relações temáticas. Hélène Cixous asserts: “The greatest respect I have for any work whatsoever in the world is the respect I have for the work of Clarice. Lispector”1 and, of The.
In spite of her nausea's "waring," because she has the body of a woman Ana is going to have to stay at least for a while on the side of the oysters, for in the "feminine sucking" of the oyster's approach Ana discovers that as opposed to her usual superficial "maternal" compassion and domestic busy-ness she has always already fallen in love, been sucked into love, with what Sartre would call the en-soi, being-in-itself: through her gaze at the oysters she is in bodily communication with the oyster-body of the material world: "[e]stava diante da ostra.
E nao havia como nao olha-la" , Although Ana's husband will in the last lines of "Amor" draw her back into her restrictive but safe role as wife and mother Ana is a precursor, or pre-mother, to other Lispector women who will through their fecundity enter more fully into the material world.
Pequena Flor, the protagonist of"A menor mulher do mundo" "The Smallest Woman in the World" moves closer toward that moment. Pequena Flor-small, black, and pregnant-discovered in the depths of the jungle by a male anthropologist, is according to Rosenberg the pure essence of femininity. Lispector presents the feminine not as weak and diluted but as an extract: refined, rare, valuable, and potent.
She accomplishes this through the body of Little Flower. For Lispector, the exposure of the female body demands what it never had before: a witness. This is why the scene itself is so important for her writing. If for Freud the scene of the "discovery" of the mother's castration requires that the little boy look away in horror, Lispector's insistence on keeping the scene of feminine openness continually before us-"whatever is crushed in the middle must be female"-works to turn such fear on its "head": the gaze cannot be averted, the oyster exists to be eaten, and as Cixous notes, "something not seen is given to be seen" , In parallel with Marta Peixoto's contention that "in Lispector narrative demands a victim" , , I maintain that in Lispector seduction demands a witness.
Because of their insistence on the full presence of what is being written Cixous notes, "Clarice tells what is happening now" [, ] , Lispector's "stories" always imply another's gaze, either that of the reader whom G.
The gaze of the reader of A paixao segundo G. It is only through attempting to kill the cockroach and then having to face its slow death that G. Nao, nao te assustes! Nao 6 mais uma ideia de barata Now the gaze is returned: the look which passes between the cockroach and G. Whitford points out that in the ocularcentrism which is a hallmark of Western philosophy "[t]he metaphoricity of vision amounts to the refusal of the thinker to admit embodiment and, more especially, the fact that embodiment means belonging to one sex or the other" , If a scene always necessitates looking, A paixao segundo G.
Also playing off Gregor Samsa's bodily cockroach-transformation in Kafka's "The Metamorphosis," Lispector radically object-ifies the female body by purposefully metamorphizing ocularcentrism into an essentialist corporeal-centrism: "[a] barata nao me via com os olhos mas com o corpo"  , She appropriates the primacy of the gaze and forces the admission, the entrance onto the stage, of female embodiment: the female cockroach, looking, "exists" G.
The fact that this cockroach-which-looks with its body is dying, crushed in the middle by the door of the wardrobe, again only emphasizes its open, female, and fecund nature; "whatever is crushed at the middle must be female. Ela me olhava com a fertilidade cega de seu olhar. Ela fertilizava a minha fertilidade morta For Olga de Sa, Lispector writes in "[uma] maneira tao obsessiva e reiterante" , As de Sa continues, "[n]o nivel do discurso, o que para ela mais se aproxima desse silencio 6 a repeticao, como corrosao do proprio significante" This kind of obsessive repetition, meant to achieve a silent, meditative view rather than an active narration, is illustrated by such pieces as Lispector's "A quinta hist6ria," which begins with three possible titles for itself foreshadowing the proliferation of titles in A hora da estrela.
This piece promises to tell at least three "stories"," and in fact tells five, each repeating the same scene: the "murder" of cockroaches, each scene of murder expanding almost imperceptibly in its examination of the woman-who-murders' motives and the cockroaches' petrified bodies, expanding finally to a moral choice for the murderer: to go on killing or not.
The fifth and final scene recapitulates the beginning of all five, with a different title.
The entire "story" is not, in fact, a story in the narrative sense, but rather an examination of a scene which slowly broadens its perspective, as a camera will move back to include more of a scene in its focus, producing a static textual sense. This is the same immobility as will be invoked in A paixao segundo G.
Hour Of the Star.pdf - Clarice Lispector The Hour of the...
The necessary "nowness" of this immobilized writing rejects any notion of past or even future, as G. Mae 6 para isso" Lispector b, In Agua viva, Lispector tells us she hears "o grito ancestral dentro de mim: parece que nao sei quem 6 mais a criatura, se eu ou o bicho" , From characters like Ana and Pequena Flor through to G. The nausea evidenced in A paixao segundo G. Up through A paixao segundo G. At the end of this novel, G.
by Clarice Lispector
We can cautiously work on the side of Cixous in saying that Lispector's inscriptions of loss "may be considered as positive" , 81 my emphasis. In A hora da estrela, however, Lispector will literalize her essentialist scene of loss; the dark bodies of Pequena Flor, G.
A hora da estrela's Macabda is, finally, essentially and almost automatically alive through a process which the text explicitly imagines as parthenogenic: [e]squecei de dizer que era realmente de se espantar que para corpo quase murcho de Macabda tao vasto fosse o seu sopro de vida quase ilimitado e tao rico como o de uma donzela gravida, engravidada por si mesma, por partenog6nese Both Cixous and Irigaray, in their different ways, link representations of death with male fears of castration Whitford , ; Cixous , Cixous' psychoanalytic readings suggest that in Lispector the male fear of castration is replaced by a feminine loss , 81 ; Irigaray argues that the little girl cannot even participate in the fear of symbolic castration because she always already has "nothing to lose In A hora da estrela Rodrigo S.
Though this might be read merely as an ironic remark, G. To exhaust an object or a life by revealing its essential nudity is a death sentence" , ; I would maintain, however, that Lispector willingly takes this risk again and again.
Death's character, being ambivalent, is a useful one for Lispector: on the one hand it can be an This content downloaded from This is not a scene of the fear of losing something essential, but rather the opposite: Macabea will be stripped down to, and gain, an "essential" nature: that of the female. The question of what to "do" critically if anything with Macabea's dead body has always bothered me, along with the fact that at the moment Lispector kills Macabda off, Macabea ironically, of course gains what she never could in life-womanhood.
How are we to read this final scene? Marta Peixoto, who in her Passionate Fictions reads this text as an ironic metacommentary on the violence inherent in narrative, has delineated one of the problems surrounding the ambivalent nature of A hora da estrela's stance toward Macabea, social victim on one hand, saint-like creature on the other: [b]ut in one sense, and this is an aspect of the text some readers may find offensive, Macabea is a privileged soul when set against the gallery of Lispector's seekers of truth and inner harmony As the quintessentially vulnerable being, ideally open to existence, she possesses, like a holy fool, an unsought, unconscious wisdom.
This novella is an extremely difficult text not only because of its ambivalently ironic tone and double-voiced narrator Lispector "behind" the mask of Rodrigo S. The Sartrean appropriations, relatively clear in former works, are now deployed in a diffuse sense of nausea. Appropriately enough, A hora da estrela's star first makes its appearance in A paixao segundo G.
Hour Of the Star.pdf - Clarice Lispector The Hour of the...
The star has represented the "unreachability" of her own hour of the "now" for G. Through starvation and poverty, Macabea arrives, or is forced to arrive, at a literal collision, forced to enter the "hour" of A paixao segundo G. Published the same year Lispector died, A hora da estrela's Macabea is a young girl from Northeast Brazil who has come to Rio de Janeiro.
When she thinks about herself, which is rarely, she can say no more than this: "sou datil6grafa e virgem, e gosto de coca- cola" , She is continually hungry and frequently nauseated: as the character who is both "writer" and narrator of the story laconically puts it, "[e]squecei de dizer que as vezes a datil6grafa tinha enj6o para comer" This nausea is the way in which, after Sartre, Lispector brings us constantly back to the body: This content downloaded from Une nausee discrete et insurmontable revele perpetuellement mon corps a ma conscience Sartre , A hora da estrela's insistence on describing Maca in terms of food-a cold cup of coffee, old bread and butter, a hair in the soup, a thin slice of watermelon, shriveled mushrooms, a sack of dry crumbs-while it keeps us in the realm of the body, and of the material, also reinforces Peixoto's claim that "Macabea's hunger is both a product of material deprivation and a metaphor of that totally vulnerable and denuded existence that Lispector sets up as an ideal in many texts" , This is an existence already denuded of even the possibility of gaining what Lispector calls "humanization.
That we are women from the start" b, , my emphasis ; for Lispector, "woman" will need to be thought through "from the start," from before her entry into the Symbolic of Western patriarchy. This means finally completing the step of re-staging the original exile of the female from what Irigaray calls the "properties" of Western culture b, Thus unlike G. E que nao me habituei" , Coming out onto the street from a fortune-teller who has just informed her that she will soon meet the man of her dreams, she is "impregnated" as the Portuguese text has it with the wrong future: the fortuneteller says to her, "acabei de ter a franqueza de dizer para aquela moca que saiu daqui que ela ia ser atropelada" , 93 ; in the next moment, Macabea is run over by a large yellow Mercedes.
The last few pages of A hora reluctantly, ironically, and painfully detail the process of her dying as she lies in the street. All throughout this death scene, in fact all throughout the text, there is an ironic insistence simultaneously on Macab6a's virginity, on her "shriveled ovaries," and on her automatic, unthinking, "infelicidade": her sensuality, which prompts Rodrigo S.
Again, he thinks about Macabea's sex Ela nada pedia mas seu sexo exigia, como um nascido girassol num timulo. This sensuality is connected explicitly to death: her dream is to be a movie star like the suicide Marilyn Monroe, with pink skin Though Olimpico informs her disdainfully that she doesn't have the face or body to be a movie star, we will discover that in fact like all women Macab6a does in fact have the body to arrive at the hour of the movie star.
Pois na hora da morte a pessoa se torna brilhante estrela de cinema Dying, the "film-star"'s fertility is awakened; Macabda, born for death's embrace, finally has death for her lover, in a "profundo beijo The collision with the "now" produced by the automobile tire which hits and kills Macabda is the same "now" we have seen privileged in A paixao and in Agua viva: "[o] presente 6 o instante em que a roda do autom6vel em alta velocidade toca minimamente no chao" , We find that A hora da estrela's thematic of the "star," the "hour of the star," the "film star," is a text-long play on words, an ironic and nauseated game playing all around the "hora de viver," a game which implicates the text itself in the most serious of risks: that of silence, and death.
At the moment of Macabda's death, although she wants to vomit "o que nao 6 corpo, vomitar algo luminoso. Estrela de mil pontas" , , she will be constrained from doing so, since separating herself from the hour of the star would separate her from the ultimate "now" she is fast approaching.
Instead, we hear her say, "quanto ao futuro": at the same time, "o amago tocando no amago" As for the future: the future is right now for Macabea, the privileged state Lispector's writing has worked toward.
When Macab6a's crushed, cockroach-body arrives at its proper hour, essence touches essence, the future is erased, and Macabda is fully present as a female body. Here, as pointed out earlier, the analogy with Irigaray's performative writing fails; if, as Whitford maintains, Irigaray does not substitute a "female truth" for the male truth she undermines, Lispector's texts imply that there is indeed a female "truth": the originary, demanding "truth" of fecundity, like a "sunflower in a tomb," both life-giving and death-bound.
Peixoto maintains that Macabea learns "nothing from her trials" , 98 ; but learning, like knowing, is completely beside the point for Macab6a: she is Lispector's closest approach yet to the unknowing, prelinguistic, unthought female origin of being: "[a] morte 6 um encontro consigo" , If Lispector "refuses to naturalize Refusing, unlike Sartre, to philosophically "pass by" the body "in silence," in A hora da estrela, Lispector tries to work through the implications of her own philosophical essentialism, the fact that the essence or nature of being-female, which for her is privileged as being fertile, is also dangerously death-bound.
The cockroach can die crushed, because it is fertile, and its fertility ensures its continuance as a species: "a barata podia morrer esmagada, mas eu estava condenada a nunca morrer, pois se eu morresse uma s6 vez que fosse, eu morreria If one seeks the "death" of "humanization," one risks the real death of the body.
The risk of staging the love scene of the silent "now," also the starring hour of death, evokes a deep unease in Lispector's texts, the same kind of unease as faced by philosophy itself: that of the proximity or incorporation, as within the female body itself, This content downloaded from Je le realise par le malaise; par lui je suis perpetuellement en danger dans un monde que est ce monde As each of Lispector's texts faces this moment, its unease is manifested as the nausea which both characters and text display-the nausea of keeping everything down, staying with the luxury of the inhuman world in the purely present moment: "Mas teimosa Macabea nao vomitou para nao desperdi;ar o luxo do chocolate" Lispector , A hora da estrela is a melancholic text which is not allowed to separate from "o luxo" of the material world both of plenitude and of death; its dark star becomes a stranded, always-circulating object which imparts by its gravity that sense of sadness which the text evokes.
The pain with which this text confronts its own conclusions means that its essentialism, while fully realized, is also always contested-is in fact a writing which is, as Cixous puts it, "not afraid to be afraid" , The collection Reading With Clarice Lispector used in this paper is taken from Cixous' seminars given between and Cixous , vii.
I agree with Marta Peixoto in her Passionate Fictions: Gender, Narrative, and Violence in Clarice Lispector that Cixous practices what might itself be termed an appropriative violence towards Lispector: "[w]hereas on the surface Cixous offers Lispector praise, warmth, and a generous receptivity However, Cixous is nonetheless a perceptive reader of some aspects of Lispector's work, particularly that of the feminine body; and because Cixous herself is obviously vexed over the question of essentialism in her own and in Lispector's works, I find that it is profitable to "appropriate" part of the economy of Cixous' critique without however accepting her conclusions.
I am also indebted for my work on the "scene" in Lispector's writing to Cixous' reading by way of Joyce of a "primitive scene" present in Lispector, one which is also, punning on s cene, the scene of the meal: as other critics have also noted, eating, on all levels including that of a symbolics of incorporation, is of course an act of the utmost philosophical importance in Lispector's writings Cixous , 2.
This content downloaded from Sartre's philosophical analysis And the woman is a threat, for the woman is nature I would say that it is, for example, through the crushing of the cockroach's shell that Lispector instead mimes and re-performs the Sartrean nausea of existence in order to effect her own access to Western philosophy's nauseated rejection of an abject, feminine materiality.
My main objection is however to labeling Lispector a feminist, "post" or not. Feminist critics can find Lispector's work of interest without having to appropriate or "rescue" her for feminism.
Every female is, then, maternal in an essentially potential way. Sartre's use of the "metaphysical coefficient" of nausea is only one of the many points where it quickly becomes clear that, as William Barrett in his Irrational Man and Margery L.
Collins and Christine Pierce in their "Holes and Slime: Sexism in Sartre's Psychoanalysis" , ; , have already noticed, Sartre's images of the En-soi are distinctly feminized. The Second Sex.
New York: Vintage Books, Butler, Judith. New York: Routledge, Castillo, Debra. Cixous, Helene. Reading With Clarice Lispector. Verena Andermatt Conley. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Collins, Margery L. Carol C. Gould and Marx W. Meet Andrea excel a macro Then they sloped their huge clubs as as enemy reinforcements arrived as was always deployed when the crew were 'shifting dirt was set up around the wagon-train.
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New York: Vintage Books, Pequena Flor-small, black, and pregnant-discovered in the depths of the jungle by a male anthropologist, is according to Rosenberg the pure essence of femininity. Return to Book Page.
Collins and Christine Pierce in their "Holes and Slime: Sexism in Sartre's Psychoanalysis" , ; , have already noticed, Sartre's images of the En-soi are distinctly feminized. And we must never forget that if the atom's structure is invisible, it is none the less real. Minha sobrevivencia futura em filhos e que seria a minha verdadeira atualidade The star has represented the "unreachability" of her own hour of the "now" for G.
Luce Irigaray: Philosophy in the Feminine. And how can I know you?