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Enjoying this preview? Become a member to read the full title. Join today and read free for 30 days. Need help? Start Your Free Trial. Crônicas Saxônicas Vol. The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis. Home · The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis Ano da Morte de Ricardo Reis, O · Read more. José Saramago O ano da morte de Ricardo Reis digitalsource 1 Sábio é o que se content.

These did not include confidential information, such as name and address, so there was no need for approval of the study project by a research ethics committee. After correction for underreporting and redistribution of ill-defined causes, this percentage increased to Cardiovascular diseases were the leading cause of death In the period from to , there was a decline in the rate of premature mortality by NCD 2.

Table 2 shows the crude rates observed, uncorrected, which still indicated an increase in the North and Northeast regions from to However, when corrections were applied for underreporting and ill-defined causes, this effect disappeared and there were reductions in mortality rates in all regions.

In , the highest standardized rate of premature mortality by NCDs was in the Southeast In , rates were very close in all regions, with the highest rates in the Northeast Thumbnail Figure 1.

Thumbnail Table 2. MortalityInformation System, Brazil, , and The standardized rates of premature mortality by NCD according per State in were higher in Alagoas In all States, there was a decline in premature mortality rates due to NCD, which varied from 0.

Thumbnail Table 3. Mortality Information System, States, Brazil, Figure 2 shows the decline in the probability of premature death due by NCD and the reduction of risk in the study period. In , death probability was In , with the maintenance of current declining trends, the probability of premature death due to NCDs is projected to be Thumbnail Figure 2.

Brazil, and projection up to Regarding the distribution of mortality by NCD according to magnitude, cardiovascular disease predominated, which is the leading cause of death in the world Chronic noncommunicable diseases in Brazil: burden and current challenges. Lancet ; : All regions showed a tendency towards a decrease in mortality due to NCDs, and although the rates in the Northeast exceeded those in other regions, they all tended to approximate over the study decade, indicating that NCDs are widespread and are leading causes of death in all five Brazilian regions.

Although all Brazilian States showed a decline in mortality rate, differences are still large, such as for Rio de Janeiro and Pernambuco.

Local studies are needed to explain these regional differences. The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Studies conducted in several countries have indicated a reduction in incidence and mortality from cardiovascular diseases since the s Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; In Brazil, this decline occurred later in the s. Neoplasms are the second cause of death in most countries and the tendency is to rise Silva GA.

In some countries, such as the United States, there has been a reduction in mortality trends by neoplasms since the s due to early diagnosis and treatment Deaths: preliminary data for Natl Vital Stat Rep [Internet] [acessado em 14 nov.

National Center for Health Statistics. Hyattsville; [acessado em 5 dez. In Brazil, as with other NCDs, albeit to a lesser extent, mortality rate related to cancer has been declining. It should be noted that there are large variations according to the type of cancer, age and sex.


Among women, mortality rates for breast, lung and colorectal cancer have increased in recent decades, while rates for cervical and stomach cancer have dropped Among men, mortality rates for prostate and colorectal cancer rose, while rates for gastric and lung cancer declined.

The decline in death rate from lung cancer in people aging less than 60 years is probably due to a decrease in smoking Diabetes accounted for 4. International Diabetes Federation. International Diabetes Federation; [acessado em 19 jan. The increase in the prevalenceof diabetes is a result of an increase in the elderly population and an increase in the prevalence of obesity Diabetes can still have acute complications, which in were responsible for 3, deaths in Brazil 2.


Diabetes is, moreover, associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases and its effects are systemic, compromising the cardiovascular system, the great arteries, the heart and the kidneys The increase of diabetes mortality burden among Brazilian adults. Of the participants, In the self-assessment, Chi-square test. Regarding living donor transplantation, Regarding exclusion from the waiting list as a recipient, the students thought that the following patients should be excluded: Regarding BD diagnosis, As a complementary test, Regarding an indication to perform resuscitation in the event of cardiorespiratory arrest, CRA - cardiorespiratory arrest.


The present study showed that medical students have a low level of knowledge about organ and tissue transplantation and BD. The subject of organ transplantation is not addressed uniformly in the curriculum of medical schools.

In the present study, the mean response rate was To increase the number of transplants, doctors should be able to diagnose BD. Ten years ago, Amaral et al. The present study had limitations because it used a single center, there was no sample size calculation, the questionnaire was not validated, and there was some difficulty in finding students in grade sixth because the board regimen stages do not always take place in the hospital basic health units and secondary hospitals.

Brazil hit the mark of Spain, which is a reference nation for its organ procurement model, had a rate of Organ transplantation is a reality of everyday medical practice for which the recognition of potential donors is extremely important.

Thus, medical education is essential for the adequate functioning of the national transplant program. The level of knowledge of medical students at our institution regarding brain death and transplantation is limited, which could be the result of inadequate education during medical school.

Conflicts of interest: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva.


Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author: Received Jul 10; Accepted Sep Copyright notice.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Objective To evaluate the level of knowledge of medical students about transplantation and brain death.

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Results Of the medical students asked, Conclusion The level of knowledge of medical students at this institution regarding brain death and transplantation is limited, which may be the result of an inadequate approach during medical school. Students, medical; Organ transplantation; Tissue and organ procurement; Brain death; Questionnaire; Education, medical.

Population selection The invitation was extended to all of the students of the institution, and the study was presented in class with the teachers' permission.

Statistical analysis Students from the first through the sixth year were divided into three subgroups: Table 1 Characteristics of the students. Open in a separate window.


Assessment of knowledge about the national scope of organ transplantation Regarding living donor transplantation, Table 2 Assessment of the knowledge about the national scenario of organ transplantation.

Evaluation of knowledge about brain death Regarding BD diagnosis, Table 3 Assessment of the knowledge about brain death. Footnotes Conflicts of interest: Organ donation:In: Brasil. Thumbnail Figure 2.

Currently Reading: Crônicas Saxônicas Vol. 6 - Morte Dos Reis - Bernard Cornwell

The Last Kingdom, like most of Bernard Cornwell's books, is firmly based on true history. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. E-mail: mmotagomes acd. Genebra: World Health Organization, [acessado em 12 nov.

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