PDF | This paper discusses the nutritional compositions and the nutritional importance of selected edible wild plants from all over the world. Data are exposed on. PDF | Wild plants have since ancient times, played a very important role Edible wild plants play a critical role in ensuring food and livelihood. Edible Parts: This plant's general appearance would not indicate its usefulness to Edible Parts: Its young leaves, flowers, and pods are edible raw or cooked.
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Wild edible plants (WEPs) are known to make important contributions to food PDF. Bharucha, Z., and J. Pretty. The roles and values of wild foods in. This book is a comprehensive catalog of wild plants, mushroom, and fruit that Some of the most common edible plants in the vegetable arena are, potatoes. Partridge berries without making note of where and how the plants grew and when the fruit ripened? The more important edible wild plants are described here.
In this context after the ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the district, the proximate nutritional analysis of the 5 mostly preferred wild leafy vegetables was also carried out.
The details of the ethnobotanical uses and nutritional values of the five species viz. Brassaiopsis hainla Seem. Don Wedd. Bonite have been presented here.
Tamenglong district covers a total area of 4, km2 and has total forest cover of 3, km2 which represent The district has four sub-divisions namely Tamenglong, Nungba, Tamei and Tousem and mainly inhabited by the Zeliangrong Nagas. Out of the 4 subdivisions, Tamenglong and Nungba are dominantly inhabited by Rongmei Naga tribes while the Tamei and Tousem subdivisions are dominated by Liangmei and Zeme tribes respectively.
The present study is emphasized on Rongmei tribe where jhum cultivation is their main occupation. Ethnically Rongmeis are of Mongoloid origin and probably migrated from the western part of Tibet to north eastern India Deb, Gnetum gnemon L.
Pilea scripta Buch.
Rhynchotechum ellipticum Wall. Sarcochlamys pulcherrima Gaudich. Bonite F.
Every village head was interacted and Informant Consent was taken before interview and the objectives of the study were clearly explained. For the data collection, standard ethnobotanical approach was adopted.
Elderly persons including village chief, women folks and vegetable vendors were interviewed using modified semi-structured questionnaires Jain, ; Martin, A total of 50informants 30 male and 20 female were interviewed on the traditional uses of wild edible plants including wild fruits, wild vegetables and spices. Detailed ethnomedicinal uses of the species were collected from these practitioners. The selection of plants for nutritional analysis was based on the preferences and recommendation by the local community, market demand and availability in the natural habitat.
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Plants were collected, photographed Fig. Collected plants were identified with the help of relevant literature and floras Sinha, ; Singh et al. For correct nomenclature and author citation of the collected species, the online database like the International Plant Names Index, The Plant Lists and Tropicos were referred.
Proximate Nutritional analysis Sample preparation- The freshly collected healthy leaves were thoroughly washed with tap water to remove soil, dust particle, etc. The washed leaves were dried with blotting paper at room temperature to remove surface water.
The dried plant samples were ground into fine powder in a mixer grinder and these powdered samples were then stored in air tight containers at room temperature. Total carbohydrate was calculated by drawing a standard graph plotting concentration of the standard glucose on the X-axis and absorbance on the Y-axis.
The materials were filtered through muslin cloth and washed with H2SO4, water and alcohol. The crude fibre is estimated by determining the final weight of the ignited residue in muffle furnace Sadasivam and Manickan, The end point is the appearance of pink colour which persisted for few minutes. About 60 wild edible plants were documented during the field and market surveys. Field data were analyzed and attempt has been made to select the most utilized and preferred species by the community.
Accordingly 5 species namely Brassaiopsishainla, Gnetum gnemon, Pilea scripta, Rhyncho techum ellipticum and Sarcochlamys pulcherrima used as vegetables and widely accepted in the tradition and culture of the Rongmei have been selected.
One species Gnetum gnemon belongs to Gymnosperm while the rest are under Dicotyledons of Angiosperms. It has been found that all the 5 species used as vegetable are also used as medicine for curing different health ailments. The ethnomedicinal uses of these species reveals that the species are used for treatment of 7 different ailments.
Among the 5 species, three species namely Brassaiopsis hainla, Pileascripta and Rhynchotechum ellipticum are used against two diseases each while Gnetum gnemon and Sarcochlamys pulcherrima are used to treat one disease each.
Because of their common preference, these species are sold commonly in local marketswhich support the marginal income of the poor. The details of the ethnobotanical uses of all the 5 species with their botanical identity is provided table 1.
Table Ethnobotanical uses of wild edible plants Botanical name Local name Ethnobotanical uses Habit [Family]; voucher specimens Rongmei As vegetable As medicine i Boiled leaves and Tender leaves inflorescence are taken against Brassaiopsis hainla Lainong Shrub cooked as hypertension Seem.
Boiled leaves are taken for Ganmakhen Shrub vegetable. Roasted [Gnetaceae]; RP irregular menstrual cycle seed are edible. Gankarek Herb sprain.
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Bonite Goibalei small preferred with ii Boiled leaves along with [Urticaceae]; RP sized tree tubers of Vernonia bicolor leaves also Colocasiasp taken for diabetics. The recent ethnobotanical works from the state Salam et al.
However, the edible usage of Rhynchotechum ellipticum was reported by Pfoze et al. The edible usage of Rhynchotechum ellipticum, Sarcochlamys pulcherrima and Gnetum gnemon by some tribes of Assam have also been reported Sharma and Pegu, ; Terangpi et al.
Proximate nutritional composition The proximate nutritional composition of the five plants is presented in table 2. The crude protein content of the five plant samples ranges from 8. The present recorded range of the crude protein is found similar with some other wild vegetable plants preferred and consumed in different parts of India like Amaranthus virdis 7. Gopalan et al. These indicate that the wild leafy vegetables are also very good sources of protein.
Maximum total carbohydrate content The present report is comparable to those species eaten by the tribes of the state Arunachal Pradesh like Phoebe lanceolata fruit 8. Saha et al.
The leaves of Brassaiopsis hainla and Gnetum gnemon contained the highest amount of crude fibre The crude fibre content of these leafy vegetable is close to those reported in some wild edible food plants used in Pakistan and Arunachal Pradesh state of India Shad et al.
The crude fibre content of the present study is higher than those in some commercial vegetables like broad beans 8. The vitamin C content was found maximum in Sarcochlamys pulcherrima Zennie and Ogzewalla Maximum amount of ether-extracted fat was found in leaves of Pilea scripta 2. The result was close to that found in some leaves of wild edible plants consumed by Bodo tribe of Assam Brahma et al.
Similar range of crude fat content in dry weight 1. Low fat content in the vegetable can be recommended to individuals suffering from overweight or obesity. Ganmakhen The Rongmei tribe of Manipur depends largely on wild plant resources for their livelihood and possesses rich traditional knowledge system.
The 5 selected species that are mostly used by the Rongmei tribe for vegetables and medicine are also found with rich nutritional potential and areeven superior to some domesticated varieties. These species can be promoted for the large scale cultivation and marketing for the benefit of the local tribe and other communities. Domestication of such wild edible plants should be encouraged with proper conservative measures,sustainable utilization and harvesting of the resources to preserve the local gene pool.
The authors express their gratitude to Dr. Conflict of Interest: We declare that there is no conflict of interest in the present work. Nutritional quality of some wild leafy vegetables in South Africa. Int J Food SciNutr. Brahma, J.
Nutritional analysis of some selected wild edible species consumed by the Bodo tribes of Kokrajar district, BTC, Assam. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. Chowdhery, H. Materials for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. Daimei, P. Ethnobotanical uses of gingers in Tamenglong district, Manipur, Northeast India. Genet Resour Crop Evol. Meaning in Rongmei. Int Journal of Linguist. Deshmukh, B. Role of wild edible fruits as a food resources: Traditional knowledge.
Int J Pharm Life Sci. Devi, O.
A checklist of traditional edible bio-resources from Ima markets of Imphal Valley, Manipur. Indian J Threat Taxa. Dwebe, T. Conserving indigenous knowledge as the key to the current and future use of traditional vegetables. Int J Inform Manage. India state of Forest Report. Wild edible plants used by Zou tribe in Manipur, India.
Int J Sci Res Publ. Gopalan, C. Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. Grivetti, L. Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection. Nutr Res Rev. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost.
Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal PRA.
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Results Information about wild edible plant species in genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens 80 species or fruits These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins.
Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism.
Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region.
They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. Documentation of these species may provide basic information for conservation, possibly further exploitation, and will preserve local traditional knowledge.
Keywords: Wild edible plants, Traditional knowledge, Biodiversity, Ethnobotany, Shangri-la region Background Wild edible plants WEPs refer to species that are harvested or collected from their wild natural habitats and used as food for human consumption [ 1 - 3 ]. They provide staple food for indigenous people, serve as supplementary food for non-indigenous people and are one of the primary sources of cash income for poor communities [ 4 - 6 ].
WEPs play an important role in ensuring food security and improve the nutrition in the diets of many people in developing countries [ 1 , 5 ]. They are potential sources of species for domestication and provide valuable genetic traits for developing new crops through breeding and selection [ 7 , 8 ].
Although domesticated plants are the main source of food and income for people in rural areas, they are not able to meet the annual food requirements [ 9 - 11 ].
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However, due to social change and acculturation processes, indigenous knowledge or traditional knowledge about the use of wild edible species is declining and even vanishing with modernization and increasing contacts with western lifestyles [ 13 ]. Meanwhile, the loss of traditional knowledge has also been recognized as one of the major factors that have negative effects on the conservation of biological diversity [ 14 ]. Thus, it is becoming urgent to document and revitalize traditional knowledge of WEPs to preserve genetic and cultural diversity [ 12 , 15 , 16 ].Low fat content in the vegetable can be recommended to individuals suffering from overweight or obesity.
Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. The crude fibre content of the present study is higher than those in some commercial vegetables like broad beans 8.
Share 2K. More recently, Powell et al. Edible Medicinal Plants. Polai, New Age International Delhi.